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Four Steps to Building Fluency with Text

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4 Steps to Building Fluency with Text Enlarge Infographic

4 Steps to Building Fluency with Text

1. Repeated Readings

  • Read the same passage several times.
  • Aim to reduce the time and number of errors with each attempt.
  • Use this strategy with students individually, with a peer, or in small groups.

2. Goal Setting

  • Identify the number of correct words to read per minute.
  • Set a goal to read farther in the passage or make fewer errors.
  • Define weekly learning targets to monitor progress overtime.
  • Identify an end of year grade level target for number ofwords read per minute.

3. Corrective Feedback

  • Give immediate feedback if student makes an error.
  • Have the student sound out and repeat the word.
  • Have the student go back and re-read the sentence.

4. Graphing Performance

  • Let students see their progress by having them graph their performance.
  • Have students compare their first read-through to the next read-through.
  • Have students track their targets and progress overtime.

Suggested Citation

National Center on Improving Literacy (2020). 4 Steps to Building Fluency with Text. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from